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How Amazon's Super-Complex Shipping System Works

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amazon delivery system, how amazon delivery sytem works

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About 13 million times per day, someone clicks the order button on Some days later, all, or at least almost all, of those 13 million orders arrive at their destination. But what happens in between? How does Amazon get a package to you? Well, it depends… a lot. In fact, Amazon’s fulfillment system, their shipping system, is more complicated and convoluted than that of almost any logistics company. 

It’s far more complicated than that of UPS, or FedEx, or DHL, or any other major delivery company. In a counterintuitive way, this complicated and convoluted fulfillment system is a crucial component of the secret sauce that’s driving Amazon’s success. They’re striving to make the consumer experience simple through behind-the-scenes complexity. 

So, back to the question: how does an Amazon package get to you, and the answer, it depends. It depends first on who’s fulfilling the package—Amazon or the seller. About one fourth of sales in the US are fulfilled directly by the seller, as most products on Amazon are listed there by a third-party, which can send packages directly through UPS, FedEx, the postal service, or another consumer delivery company if they choose. 

Amazon has nothing to do with the fulfillment of those orders, and the process looks largely the same as with any other e-commerce company. What’s different is how the other three quarters of Amazon packages in the US get to you—the ones that are fulfilled directly by Amazon. The path that these take depends first on how big the package is. 

You see, Amazon’s fulfillment centers are more-or-less split into three categories: small sortable, large sortable, and large non-sortable. That first category, small sortable, represents the bread and butter of Amazon’s business. These are items that are less than 12 by 16 by 6 inches or 30 by 40 by 15 centimeters in size, and about 25 pounds or 11 kilograms in weight. 

The next category, large sortable, is basically anything larger than this up to a weight of about 60 pounds or 27 kilograms. Now, the reason for the split between large and small is because the fulfillment operations of smaller items is much easier to automate—they can fit on conveyor belts and automated robots and other tools that lower the company's reliance on humans. 

For example, Amazon uses a robot called the Kiva which fundamentally changed the way the job of the company’s pickers, the people who find and grab an item out of storage, worked. Previously, pickers would walk some 10 to 12 miles or 16 to 19 kilometers a day through cavernous rows of shelves. 

Now, at least in their most advanced fulfillment centers, a robot picks up an entire mobile shelf, on which a required product is located, and transports it to the picker, who picks it. Essentially, rather than the picker going to the shelf, the shelf goes to the picker. 

With these robots, one person can pick three to four hundred items an hour rather than the one hundred or so that was possible on foot. Of course, fewer humans in the mix is good for Amazon, given the amount of criticism it receives for its treatment of workers, and also because humans, even low-paid ones, are expensive. The fulfillment process for larger items, though, is just tougher to automate cheaply, so the company chooses to segment the two processes out, and runs a far more manual and distinct fulfillment system for larger items. However, in most, but not all cases, the fulfillment centers for large and small items are under the same roof, even if they’re operated completely independently. 

Of course, the ideal scenario for Amazon would be to have every single item they sell in every single warehouse, but that’s not realistic. Therefore, they use predictive modeling to try to put items closest to those who are likely to buy them. The US is far from homogeneous, so demand for different products varies from place to place. 

For example, in Miami, people probably aren’t looking to buy many ice scrapers for their cars. Meanwhile, in Fargo, North Dakota, demand for this item is almost certainly quite high. It’s therefore no wonder why that, if you look at the data, the colder the city, the faster you can get an ice scraper on Amazon. That is Amazon’s predictive stocking at work. 

While most examples of this system are far more nuanced and far less intuitive, the concept is simple: their algorithms put products closest to the consumers most likely to buy them—something only possible at this scale thanks to modern big-data analytics. Of course, there’s then that third category of products—large non-sortable. The distinction here is because Amazon likes to aggregate products together into as few packages as possible—unsurprisingly, fewer packages equals lower costs. 

So, both the sortable categories include anything that could possibly be packaged together in a single box. The largest items—say a 70 pound beanbag, for example—are shipped from the large non-sortable fulfillment centers. 

These facilities are even less automated than the large-sortable ones, and even include workers who create custom boxes for odd-sized items. In Colorado, for example, this is a completely separate facility, located in Aurora, from the sortable fulfillment center in Thornton. Now, some large items will go directly into the system of a third-party provider, typically XPO Logistics, which would deliver these bulky items to their final destination, while others will continue on in Amazon’s system. 

The portion of large non-sortable items not sent to a third party logistics provider, plus all the large and small sortable packages would next be sent to a regional sortation center. In Colorado, those two fulfillment centers send their packages to a single sortation center, located just minutes away from the Aurora fulfillment center. This is a massive facility, almost half a million square feet in size, with robots running around, dropping packages into different chutes, which each represent a different grouping of zip codes. 

Now, not all the sortation centers are quite so automated, but each outputs the same thing—pallets of packages going to roughly the same place. What happens next, though, once again, depends. A package heading to Miami, for example, would end up on a pallet with other packages for Miami, which itself would end up on a truck carrying pallets for Tampa, North Carolina, Houston, Baltimore, New York City, Connecticut and a few other cities and states to the east. This truck would then drive the 15 minutes to a waiting 767 cargo plane at Denver International Airport branded in “Prime Air” livery. Now, Amazon Air started in 2015 with its lease of about 20 aircraft from Air Transport International and has since grown to almost 70 aircraft—all leased from other airlines. 

However, the company recently announced the purchase of their first 11 aircraft—also 767, bought from Delta and WestJet—meaning they’ll soon both own and operate their own aircraft. Those eastbound pallets would all be loaded around 4:00 am, before the aircraft’s scheduled departure time of 4:54 am. 

Now, anyone familiar with UPS or FedEx’s operations will know why this departure time is strange. If UPS was transporting this package to Miami, at least at its fastest speed, it would have departed on an aircraft the previous night at 9:40 pm, been flown to Louisville, sorted through the company’s hub, then flown to Miami, arriving at 5:50 am. FedEx would have done roughly the same, just through Memphis instead. 

That’s because FedEx, UPS, and most other major delivery companies are oriented towards overnight delivery—they make a big chunk of their money charging big rates to take a package from one part of the US one day and deliver it to another the next day. Amazon, meanwhile, built their Prime brand off of the promise of two-day delivery—ordering a package on a Monday and getting it on a Wednesday, for example. 

While they’ve since strayed from the rigidness of that system, the fastest shipping they’ll offer for an item not stocked at a local fulfillment center is two days, meaning they don’t have to worry about being able to get a package from Denver to Miami overnight. That’s why UPS and FedEx’s planes take off in the evening, while Amazon’s leave in the morning. 

So, that means it’s about 9:00 am by the time that Amazon Air plane from Denver gets to Cincinnati airport each day. Through the morning hours, a dozen or so aircraft land in Cincinnati, and this timing gives the company a major advantage. Cincinnati airport is also home to DHL’s main Americas hub, but DHL, like FedEx and UPS, conducts its operations primarily overnight starting at around midnight, when dozens of their aircraft from all around the world land and unload. 

Over the next few hours, packages and pallets are sorted and loaded onto other aircraft, which all tend to take off by 8:00 am. That means DHL only really uses their facility during the overnight hours, so Amazon leases it for daytime use. 

While Amazon is building their own, larger facility at Cincinnati airport, this partnership gave them a huge head-start. So, each day, between 8:00 am and 4:00 pm, Amazon’s there, turning their planes around, and sorting pallets from where they come from, like Denver, to where they need to go, like Miami. That Miami flight takes off each weekday at 2:15 pm, and then it lands in Florida just before 5:00 pm eastern time. Now, not every Amazon Air itinerary looks like this. 

In fact, while UPS and FedEx route almost all of their flights through their Louisville and Memphis super-hubs, or through some of their secondary hubs across the country, only 20% of Amazon Air’s flights go through their main Cincinnati hub. That’s because, with the orientation towards two-day delivery versus one, they just have more time. The more time means that, in order to service the entirety of Florida, Amazon only needs to fly to three destinations—Miami, Tampa, and and Lakeland. That’s because Amazon’s flights to these airports typically land by 5:00 pm, meaning there’s a whole twelve hours before packages have to be at the local delivery center for the final destination. 

The entirety of Florida is within an eight-hour drive of Lakeland, meaning Amazon can deliver to all of Florida by only serving effectively one, but in practice three airports. Meanwhile, FedEx, for example, flies from Memphis to Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Jacksonville, Tallahassee, Tampa, and Palm Beach, then, from Fort Lauderdale, it operates feeder flights on smaller aircraft to Key West and Marathon. 

So, in summary, in order to serve all of Florida, this is what FedEx has to do and this is what Amazon has to do. The required number of destinations for full coverage is greatly reduced by orienting for two-day delivery, and this also means that Amazon doesn’t have to route every flight via one main hub. 

Because they operate to far fewer destinations, it’s much easier for Amazon to fill a plane from California, for example, exclusively with packages destined for Florida, since while a given UPS or FedEx flight carries packages from or to just one city, a given Amazon Air flight likely carries packages from or to a whole state or region. 

Therefore, Amazon Air has flights from all these airports to Lakeland, meaning that, while a package from Denver would have to route via Cincinnati, one from Los Angeles or Dallas or Chicago could fly direct. With a full hub-and-spoke strategy, like that of UPS or FedEx, a package would have to be loaded and unloaded from aircraft twice, and sometimes more, while Amazon Air’s nonstop flights only require loading and unloading once, which reduces cost, and can fly packages direct, which also reduces cost. This is how Amazon can transport packages by air more efficiently than UPS or FedEx. 

The airplane, however, is just one of five routes that an Amazon package could take onwards from the Denver sortation center. For those that are to be delivered locally, in the Denver area, they’ll be driven to one of four delivery stations for Denver. There, they’ll be loaded into smaller delivery vans, operated by independent companies or individuals contracted by Amazon, which will take the packages to their final destinations. 

This is the one and only case in which an Amazon package is handled by Amazon logistics from start to finish, and it’s generally how their packages are delivered within major urban and suburban areas. Only a slim majority of their overall package volume is delivered this way, though, as when you leave major urban areas, things get a bit more complicated. 

Now, a package heading outside the Denver area with a later delivery date, or with a destination within the greater Rockies region, would end up on an Amazon-branded, but independently operated semi-truck. For example, packages to the Aspen area, about a three to four hour drive into the mountains, leave at around 1:00 am each night. Early in the morning, however, at around 5:00 am, they arrive at the local post office and from there, they’re fully transferred into the United States Postal Service system for final delivery. 

You see, in less populous areas, like the mountains of Colorado, it just doesn’t make sense for Amazon to operate their own last-mile delivery. They need a certain amount of scale for that to be cheaper than the alternative, and, at least right now, that scale is only possible in major metro areas. 

Therefore, they need alternatives for smaller cities, towns, and rural areas, and that alternative is more often than not the USPS. That’s because the postal service charges very low rates for last-mile delivery, assuming Amazon transports the packages to the local post office themselves. 

While exact numbers aren’t publicly known, estimates indicate the USPS charges Amazon about $2 per package for last-mile delivery—about half of what other delivery companies would for the same service. After all, the USPS services every address in America, so wherever Amazon needs to deliver, the USPS is going there anyways. 

That’s why for smaller places that still have a decent volume of packages, like mid-sized towns and cities, USPS delivery is often the cheapest option for Amazon. But then there’s that next step down—the most rural places in America. Everything that can’t be cheaply delivered by Amazon or the USPS, typically because they’re destined for low-density areas where you couldn’t even fill a truck to send to the local post office, or because of capacity or speed reasons, is sent through UPS. 

Right now, it’s believed that about 20% of Amazon’s packages end up delivered by UPS. In Colorado, a package destined for the most rural areas, like the western edge of San Miguel County, for example, would take this route. It would cost Amazon far more, and they’d likely end up losing money on the cheapest items, but it’s what’s required for them to be able to service every address in the US quickly. 

No matter which of these routes a package takes, the end result is, at least hopefully, the same—UPS, the USPS, or Amazon itself drops off a package at its final destination, after a few days of travel across the US. It’s a very simple process from a consumer perspective, but the behind the scenes is incredibly complex. The complexity is what’s needed, though, for a business who’s whole value proposition is to get anything to your door quickly and cheaply. 

The core of Amazon, their competitive advantage, is now logistics, to the point where many experts believe that the company will start offering delivery as a service to other companies in the coming years. They believe that they’ve perfected their system enough that they’re going to take on UPS and FedEx. 

Of course, Amazon still has competitors, which are going after the company as aggressively as ever. Target, for example, has been able to build a delivery system with similar speed through completely different means—ones that are far simpler. They’ve essentially turned each of their 1,900 stores across every US state into a fulfillment center. 

They send employees out into the aisles who pick, pack, and ship online orders. That means that their packages never have to travel very far at all, and so they can take advantage of cheap and quick ground shipping from UPS, FedEx, and other more traditional providers. Some 80% of the company’s orders are fulfilled directly from its stores and now Walmart is also adopting this direct-from-store fulfillment system as well. 

So far, though, Amazon believes in their system of simplicity through complexity, and they’re making moves to further expand the system within the US and emulate it in Europe, where they recently opened their first air hub in Leipzig, and put their first two freight aircraft online in November, 2020. 

UPS, FedEx, and the other major consumer delivery companies are already well aware of just how big a threat Amazon poses to them. Amazon has managed to build a 21st-century logistics network using 21st-century techniques and technologies, and, of course, part of the threat comes from the company’s market dominance, but most is because Amazon is innovating in a way others aren’t. 

The way FedEx and UPS move packages today is largely the same way they did decades ago, but Amazon’s system is only possible through innovations that allow them to manage such a massive, complex, and convoluted system. 

This is all to say: if you’re worried about Amazon’s growing position as the one-stop-shop for the world, be worried, because they’re only getting better at it. What Amazon’s rise proves more than anything is that, like it or not, online is the new main street. 

Therefore, just as you’d be concerned with what your store-front looks like on main street, you should be concerned about how your web presence looks. Now, in the case of email, having a non-custom address is the equivalent of having a dirty sign—it works, but it’s not pretty. 

That’s why you’ll notice that most professionals use custom email addresses—something that ends in something like 

That’s a domain that I bought through Hover, made possible thanks to their over 400 unique domain extensions that let you go way behind .com, .org, or .net. After getting that domain, it took about two minutes to set up a custom email address for myself and everyone else who works on the channel. 

I can’t count the number of times when someone has complimented our email addresses, as weird as that sounds, and so whether you run a business, or just want a better email for yourself, it’s worth getting a custom one with Hover. So, head to to get 10% off your first purchase of a custom domain or email address, and you’ll be supporting the channel while you’re at it. 

Ratan Tata Visits Pune To Meet Former Ailing Employee

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Social media users are full of praise for Ratan Tata. This is because Ratan Tata quietly travelled to Pune to visit an ailing former employee. Social media users were surprised at his kindness and praised him. 

83-year-old Ratan Tata had quietly travelled from Mumbai to Pune. In Pune he visited the 'Friends Society' to meet an ailing former employee who was not well since 2 years. Yogesh Desai clicked his picture and shared it on LinkedIn on 4th January. 

Since then, his post has gone viral with comments praising Mr Tata for being kind and humble. Everyone thought that since Mr Tata is such a famous businessman, he would be accompanied by bodygaurds. However, he visited Pune without any reporters. He went alone and returned back to Mumbai. Desai said there is no other businessman in India as humble and kind as Mr. Tata. 

Desai also said that all entrepreneurs should learn from Mr Tata being a millionaire is not important. But one should be kind and humble. Some social media users thought that Yogesh Desai had met Mr. Tata. 

Yogesh Desai said he had not met Mr. Tata. His friend resided in the same building where Mr Tata visited his ailing employee. Desai said, "I just saw Mr. Tata and clicked his photo and shared it on social media. 

The post garnered approximately 1,70,000 reactions in two days of being posted. One user commented that Mr. Tata is truly an inspiration for everyone. He always helps his current and ex-employees. He empathises with his employees. In difficult times, he does not abondon them and helps them out. Another user commented, "We are proud of him and we salute him!!” 


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So Samsung officially unveiled the Galaxy S21 lineup yesterday at the Unpacked Event. As expected the phones have Android 11 based on OneUI 3.0 which has already rolled out to many of Samsung's flagships but the Galaxy S21 lineup will be the first Samsung phones to get a really cool software feature called Object eraser. 

I guess a lot of people overlooked this at the Unpacked event, but Samsung has also showcased this feature called Object eraser which lets you delete people from the backgrounds of your images. After a photo is taken, you can simply tap on the people you want to remove, and AI will do the rest. 

This solution will be rolled out as part of the stock Photo Editor tool available inside Samsung’s Gallery app. Now, this would be similar to what Adobe does with its Content-Aware Fill tool in photoshop but I wonder if it's going to work as good as Samsung is showing in this video or even as good as Adobe's solution. 

I guess we'll know soon enough but it's totally possible since AI in the new 5nm chipsets has been greatly improved compared to last year. So if it works as advertised by Samsung then this is no small feat by any means. Also, Samsung caught a lot of people off guard when they announced the prices of the Galaxy S21 lineup. 

Rumors suggested we would see somewhere around $100 cheaper prices compared to last year but that wasn't the case. Samsung for the first time in many years has actually put some sense into pricing their handsets, I mean these are the official prices for the S21 lineup. The S21 Ultra is actually $200 cheaper than last year. 

To be exact, all the S21 models are $200 cheaper than last year's models which is appreciated especially during this time when the economy is still recovering. Just like Apple, Samsung's latest flagships don't have the charger and headphones in the box. Apple said they did it to save the environmental waste and Samsung is also doing the same. 

In a statement made during the Unpacked event, Samsung gave the reason for this move and I quote, "We believe that the gradual removal of charger plugs and earphones from our in-box device packaging can help address sustainable consumption issues and remove any pressure that consumers may feel towards continually receiving unnecessary charger accessories with new phones." 

So basically Samsung is saying they removed the charger and headphones from its flagship smartphone boxes because most Galaxy customers don’t need or use new accessories which honestly is I'm wondering what's bad! Removing the charger or this lame excuse? Because when people sell their phones, they sell them with their chargers and headphones intact otherwise the resale value goes down. So no, the majority of people don't have many chargers or earphones laying around so this excuse is just lame, in my opinion. 

By the way, charger and earphones aren't the only things they are removing from the S21, it will also not have MST, magnetic Secure Transmission feature of Samsung Pay. If you’re not familiar, MST is a very cool trick that allows Samsung phones to send out a magnetic pulse that made payment terminals think that you’d swiped a regular credit card. 

But for some weird reason, they removed it. Also, they have removed the MicroSD card slot from all the S21 variants, there's no support for 45W charging in either of the S21 models. 

I'm sure some people won't mind losing some of these features especially with the lower starting prices but you gotta admit, Samsung is losing the competitive edge they had with these features. Anyway, let me know what do you think about this down in the comments and as always I'll see you tomorrow...Peace out! 

ICC Names Dhoni Captain of the ‘Team of the Decade’

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ICC awards players annually for their outstanding performance in cricket. ICC Awards of the Decade is where outstanding performers from the past ten years of international cricket, are reviewed. Players are given awards such as Captain of the Decade, Batsman of the Decade, Bowler of the Decade, etc. Usually, a panel decides and selects the players for the awards. This is the first time that ICC invited fans to vote for selecting the winners across categories. 

Fans voting was for 10 % and the panel voted for 90%. The voting panel considered players' performance between 1st January 2010 and 31st December 2020. 15 Lakh fans participated casting more than 53 Lakh votes. ICC Spirit of Cricket Award of the Decade is given to the most humble, honest, and the one who plays with sportsman spirit. Fans voted from a list of the past winners since 2011. 

Panelists were not involved in the selection and fans were 100% involved in the process. ICC on 27th December announced the Men’s T20I, ODI, Test Teams of the Decade. Women’s T20 team of the decade was also announced. Out of all the skilled players in the world, there were four players from India, two from Australia, two West Indies and one each from Sri Lanka, South Africa, and Afghanistan. 

MS Dhoni was named as the captain for Men’s T20 and ODI teams. MS Dhoni, Virat Kohli, Jasprit Bumrah and Rohit Sharma are the other Indians in the T20I team. The ICC’s ODI team of the decade, included MS Dhoni, star Indian batsmen Virat Kohli and Rohit Sharma. The ICC's Test team of the decade included Virat Kohli and Ashwin. In the women’s T20I team of the decade, India’s Harmanpreet Kaur and Poonam Yadav were selected. 

Virat Kohli had scored 20,396 runs in all international cricket during the time, which is more than anyone else. Virat Kohli was also part of team India that won the ICC World Cup 2011 and ICC Champions Trophy 2013. He won the Sir Garfield Sobers Award for ICC Male Cricketer of the Decade. He was also awarded the ICC Men’s ODI Cricketer of the Decade. 

MS Dhoni won the ICC Spirit of Cricket Award of the Decade. He was voted for the ICC Spirit of Cricket Award of the Decade by the fans. He was awarded for an incident that happened at Trent Bridge, England in 2011. During England's batting, there was a disputable run out. The umpire misunderstood and gave an Out. 

The batsman was walking back to the pavilion. MS Dhoni then said that he was not out and as his bat was within the crease. Everyone was spellbound with MS Dhoni's honesty. Dhoni could have let the batsman go as the umpire had already given him out. This shows that Dhoni is a man of integrity. For this incident, he was awarded the ICC Spirit of Cricket Award of the Decade.

Galaxy S21 Ultra - TOP 10 FEATURES

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So the Galaxy S21 Ultra is Samsung's latest superphone with a bunch of neat new features. So here are the top 10 features of Samsung's latest Ultra phone that are worth a second look. Samsung is taking a page from the Galaxy Note's book and introduce the S Pen on the Galaxy S lineup for the very first time. But there are some differences, though. 

One, there's no dedicated slot to put the pen inside the phone as we have on the Note, and two, it looks totally different from the Note's S Pen. It's bigger and thicker but has all the bells and whistles of the Note's stylus. Samsung is selling a couple of cases to carry the pen all the time but since you're now storing the pen inside the case, it will be wider than usual. 

Also there are two S Pen's available with the phone. S Pen and S Pen pro, the Pro has every feature such as bluetooth which isn't avaialble on the normal S Pen. By the way, Unlike the Note, you need to purchase these S Pens separately. 

With the S21 Ultra, Samsung addressed the biggest complaint people had with the S20 Ultra that you can't use the 120Hz refresh rate at a maxed out QHD+ resolution. On the Note 20 Ultra, though Samsung improved the display panel by enabling an adaptive refresh rate that changes the refresh rate from 1Hz to 120Hz depending upon the content being shows but still there was no 120Hz at QHD+. 

But that changes finally with the S21 Ultra. Users can now enjoy the crisp resolution with a smooth 120Hz refresh rate at the same time. The S21 Ultra has a camera feature called single take just like the S20 Ultra but Samsung has now added a dynamic video that maximizes the dynamic motion by slowly playing the part based on Artificial intelligence which, to be honest looks really good in this demo. 

The Ultrasonic fingerprint scanner has finally been upgraded on the S21 Ultra. It's now 1.77 times bigger than the one on the S20 and Note 20 Ultra. Not only that it's faster too, you don't even need to press on it. Just a tap would unlock the phone. The camera is where the S21 Ultra is seeing the biggest improvement. 

Unlike the S20 Ultra which only has one zoom lens, this one has two one for short-range and another for long-range zoom. Also, the optical zoom range is now doubled to 10x which means clearer zoomed-in pictures. You can also zoom up to 100x digitally and to make sure the camera is not shaky, Samsung will let you lock the zoomed-in picture by pressing the zoom lock to take better and blur-free photos. 

Director's view is a really cool feature for video nerds. It allows recording from multiple lenses at the same time including the front camera. It shows the live view from all the cameras on the screen and you can switch to any of the lenses with just a tap on it. Also you can record 4K videos from all the lenses something that wasn't possible on the S20 Ultra. 

4K recording at 120fps is now possible too and for people who like to record videos at their default Auto FHD setting, Samsung has introduced variable frame rates ranging from 30 to 60fps vs a fixed one on the S20 Ultra which means a video that looks natural and smooth at the same time. 

Night mode has also been improved dramatically thanks to a faster lens and noise reduction technology. The difference is a big one as you can see in this video. The S21 lineup has a new 5nm processor which not only is around 30% faster than last year's handsets but is more power efficient too. 

Unlike previous years, you won't find any performance disparity between the Exynos and Snapdragon variants. Both will perform on par with each other. Ultrawideband chip is on the S21 Ultra means a faster and convenient file transfer with other UWB enabled chip, but you can also use it to locate other devices. 

Samsung has also introduced a smart tag which is basically a tracker you can attach to your bag, car keys etc., and with the smart things find app on the S21 Ultra, you can see the exact location and find your missing item. The S21 Ultra is also a specification king with up to 16GB RAM and 512GB storage, the base will start from 12GB, though. But with the S21, Samsung has also taken some weird decisions such as removing the charger and headphones from the box, and removed the option of an expandable memory card slot. 

But thankfully, they have also reduced the prices compared to last year. Now the S21 Ultra starts from 1199 dollars down from 1399 of the S20 Ultra which is highly appreciated. Of course, do let me know what do you think about this down in the comments and as always I'll see you tomorrow...peace out!

How Japan Is Building Disaster-Proof Skyscrapers

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News Cover: The ground began to shake, 32 million people here in Tokyo brace themselves for the worst. 8.9 magnitude, now we know that's a big number. It was the fifth largest earthquake in history. But the real damage comes from the ferocious tsunami that was unleashed.

In some areas, the waves reached 40 meters in height- Sweeping up everything in its path including cars and ships unable to withstand the strength and the power of the surging water. 

Japan is located in the Pacific earthquake belt. This means the country is struck by some of the strongest earthquakes and tsunamis in the world. In the past decade, about 30 tropical storms have also hit the country each year. 

These natural disasters kill on average 100 to 200 people per year and take a huge toll on the country's economy. But learning from painful experience, Japan has built one of the world's best natural disaster response systems, which includes regular disaster preparedness drills and early warning alerts. 

Japanese engineers and architects have also pushed the boundaries of technology and design to create resilient, disaster-proof buildings. This is Tokyo Skytree. At 634 meters, it's the world's tallest tower. Designed for broadcasting and observation, the base of Skytree occupies a relatively small plot of land that isn't ideal for such a tall structure. 

Atsuo Konishi and his colleagues designed a steel truss tower, so instead of fighting against the wind, it can simply pass through the gaps between the trusses. To stabilize the tower, the team used a traditional Japanese design called Shinbashira that dates back over 1000 years. 

This is the flexible central pillar of a Japanese pagoda, which stabilizes the tiered wooden structure during an earthquake or typhoon. In a similar way to a tree trunk supporting its branches. A Shinbashira has been found at the center of the world's oldest wooden structure, made from a tree felled in 594 AD. 

For Skytree, the team designed a 375-meter-tall concrete core column connected to the tower's steel outer frame by a series of flexible oil dampers, devices that control unwanted vibrations. The swaying of the core column and outer frame in opposite directions reduce the vibration of the entire tower by up to 50% during an earthquake and 30% during strong winds. 

The core column is set on six seismic isolators made of rubber, these absorb unwanted movement and work together with the oil dampers at various heights. The top part of Skytree is a broadcasting antenna. To ensure high quality, the antenna needs to stay as stable as possible. So two tuned mass damper systems were installed to reduce unwanted vibrations. 

One is at an altitude of 625 meters and weighs 25 tons, and the other is at an altitude of 620 meters and weighs 40 tons. When the tower shakes, these two dampers act together as reverse pendulums, reducing vibrations caused by wind or an earthquake. When Skytree was designed in the late 2000s, architects and engineers flew weather balloons to collect data on wind speeds and build models which they tested in a wind tunnel. 

But for some building designs, this expensive and time-consuming process has been replaced by faster and cheaper software powered by artificial intelligence. After a decade of research, architectural engineering company Takenaka has developed a typhoon simulation software called Kazamidori. For a 3 kilometer square urban area, it usually takes three months to build a model, conduct a wind tunnel test and get the results, but with Takenaka's software, the entire process can happen in just two or three days and its engineers are trying to reduce that down to half a day. 

Japanese architects are also experimenting with unconventional building material for highrises. Skyscrapers are usually built from concrete or steel because they're strong and cost-effective. But building from wood is more environmentally-friendly. Compared with the production of steel and concrete, production of timber consumes less energy and releases less carbon dioxide. 

New trees can also be planted to absorb emissions. But building tall structures with wood offers up its own engineering and financial challenges. That didn't stop Japanese construction company Maeda from trying though. Maeda is going to construct a 13-story wood and steel hybrid office building in Tokyo's Shibuya district. To make the building earthquake-proof, designers came up with a hybrid lattice structure that will support the walls and create a more user-friendly experience. 

These designs and technologies have helped high-rise buildings to withstand typhoons and earthquakes. And now many low-rise buildings in Japan are starting to adopt them as well. Some vulnerabilities still exist, like older buildings constructed before regulations were tightened in 1981. With natural disasters becoming more and more frequent, these innovative designs and technologies could be key to protecting the economy and lives both in Japan and around the world.

Samsung Galaxy S21 - IT'S BACK

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So Samsung has finally made the Exynos 2100 official which will debut in a couple of days' time on the Galaxy S21. Alongside we have tons of new information about the S21 and surprising AMD news all Samsung fans have been waiting for. 

First up, here are the cluster of cores Samsung is using for the Exynos 2100 headlined by the powerful Cortex X1. The cluster of cores is identical to the Snapdragon 888 but differs in clock speed. Samsung claims that this configuration will lead to a 30 percent improvement in multi-core performance when compared to the Exynos 990. 

Now since the chipset has more clock speeds, you would assume it would draw more power. Well, to offset that Samsung has embedded Advanced multi IP governer technology that prolongs battery life by optimizing power usage of the CPU, GPU, and other processers. This allows a 20% improvement in battery life compared to its predecessor. The chipset sees a massive 40% increase in graphics performance compared to the 990 which is huge. 

Speaking of graphics Samsung has also announced this at the event. For those of you who didn't understand, he said that Samsung is also working on AMD GPUs for Exynos and the next flagship from Samsung will have RDNA graphics from AMD on the Exynos chipset which will surely be a game-changer. 

Now, the next flagship from Samsung is the Galaxy Z Fold 3 or the Galaxy Note 21. So we're not far away from finally getting AMD GPUs on Samsung phones. Anyway, the chip can support displays up to 4K resolution at 120 Hz or QHD+ at 144 Hz refresh rate, up to 4K video recording at 120fps, and playback of 8K at 60fps. The chip also supports up to 200MP camera sensors, can support up to six individual sensors and it can process data from four units simultaneously. 

It also has a new tri-core NPU that can execute up to 26-trillion-operations-per-second with more than twice the power efficiency of the previous generation. All in all, it looks promising on paper, and don't be surprised if it outperforms the latest offering from Qualcomm. 

Also, the box of the Galaxy S21 lineup has been revealed and unsurprisingly the in-box accessory only includes a USB c cable and a sim ejection tool alongside the phone itself. This is no secret at this point that Samsung is following Apple to ditch the charger and headphones to make more profits in the name of saving the environment. 

Interestingly a few countries will get the charger and headphones in the box including France, and Brazil where it is necessary to provide these accessories by law. We also have some marketing materials that tease several features including support for 5G networks as standard across the entire Galaxy S21 series and an official IP68 rating. 

The cameras and their respective features are marketed too including the new night mode that looks promising. Storage configuration has been revealed as well. Also in the official trailer for the S21 Unpacked Event, Samsung has revealed a couple of S21 features including directors view that lets you record from all the lenses at the same time. 

It showed a super steady video feature alongside a feature similar to Apple's Airdrop where you can copy things on one device and paste it on another. With that said, the Unpacked event is right around the corner, let me know what do you think about this down in the comments and as always I'll see you tomorrow...Peace out

Galaxy S21 Ultra - HANDS ON

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The Galaxy S21 Unpacked event is finally here. We have tons of high-quality hands-on videos of the entire Galaxy S21 lineup courtesy of Evan Blass and also the videos of the S Pen as well as the new exclusive features of the Galaxy S21 Ultra. 

First up here is the S Pen on the S21 Ultra. As you can see it looks different than the one we have on the Galaxy Note. It's a little thicker and longer but it does have all the S Pen features we are used to on the Galaxy Note. 

Also since there is no slot to put it on the phone, Samsung has made a custom case where you can place it at the side. Although it will make the case a little wider especially on the left side but it's better than having no slot and losing your stylus. 

The biggest improvement the Galaxy S21 Ultra will see is in the camera department especially in zoom. Now the S21 Ultra has two zoom cameras one is for short-range and another for long-range which helps you take better and high quality 3x and 10x lossless zoom pictures. Also zooming in over 30x and up to 100x makes the camera shaky which may get blurry photos, to avoid that Samsung has created a zoom lock which you can enable by touching the zoom lock at the left, which basically locks the zoomed-in picture to get clearer photos.

 Also, the Galaxy S21 has an improved night mode thanks to a new and faster bright night sensor and noise reduction technology. As you can see, the night mode has been significantly improved compared to the Galaxy S20 where now the image is not only brighter but also has more detail. The article is where the S21 Ultra is seeing another major improvement. 

Now you can record 4K videos from all the lenses, also if you're recording in the default Auto FHD mode then now the S21 Ultra supports recording of variable fps from 30 to 60fps whereas it's fixed on last year's Galaxy S20 Ultra. 

Also new is the dynamic video on single take which uses AI to maximize the dynamic motion by slowly playing the part as you can see in this demo. Other features like super steady has been improved as well. Director's view is also a handy tool that shows recordings on the screen from all the lenses at the same time including the front camera which is going to be super helpful for video nerds. 

The Galaxy S21 comes with a free Galaxy Smart tag which is basically a tracker you can attach to things like your bag or your car key. Say if you've lost your key then you can find it with your phone on the smart things app which basically shows you the exact location. 

Depending upon the strength of the signal the graphic changes and still if you don't find it, you can just ring it which is kinda useful. Also with smart things find app, you can locate the exact location of your lost phone or watch or even the smart tag which is possible courtesy of the Ultra wideband chip. 

The Galaxy S21 Plus also looks beautiful in this phantom violet color. To keep the cost down, Samsung has trimmed some features on the S21 Plus such as no periscope zoom camera, a 64MP main sensor, and a flat display upfront. 

Also, the S21+ has an FHD+ display at 120Hz compared to the QHD+ of the Ultra. Also, the Galaxy S21 looks exactly the same as the Plus except the back is made out of plastic, the rest of the specs are nearly identical. 

Samsung will also launch the new earbuds, the Galaxy Buds Pro along with the S21, and actually they will give it away for free if you pre-order the S21 Ultra. It has some new features such as it will automatically turn down the volume if it detects that you are speaking to someone else and then automatically turns up the volume. 

Also if you have a tablet alongside the phone, it will automatically switch to the gadget that you're using which is smooth. Of course with that being said, let me know what do you think about this down in the comments.

Budget Documents Will Not be Printed This Year

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News Cover: Every year the government announces the Budget. The documents are printed two weeks prior to the actual announcement of the budget. This procedure has been going on since 26th November 1947. 

Before the printing process, an annual tradition is followed as per Indian traditions. Halwa is made which marks the beginning of the process of printing and it is offered to the staff members. 

The printing process takes place in the basement of North Block. For the first time since 1947, the government said that the Budget documents will not be printed this year. This is due to the COVID-19 pandemic. 100 workers are involved in the process of printing and transporting these documents for 2 weeks. 

Keeping over 100 people together in a printing press, is risky as it could lead to the spread of the virus. Hence, the Union Government decided to stop the printing of the budget documents. Instead for the first time an e-version of the document in the form of a PDF will be mailed to everyone. 

The PDF would be sent to 750 Members of the Parliament. Distribution of physical copies was already stopped for the media. On the Budget Day, the Finance Ministers carry the documents to the Parliament in a leather briefcase. 

However, in 2019 and 2020, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman carried the documents in a traditional bahi khata. Sitharaman will present the Union Budget for the year 2021-22 on 1st February. Now, one can access the Budget speech and the related documents on the website. But you can view it only after the Budget is announced. 

Mega Churn on corona vaccination on January 11 pm modi will communicate with CMs of all States

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News Cover: PM Narendra Modi will hold a virtual meeting with CMs of all states and union territories on January 11, after allowing the vaccines for the Covid vaccine. A second nationwide mock drill on COVID-19 vaccination was conducted at three of the 736 districts of the country's assembly states and union territories. The purpose of this second dry run was to ensure that there is no behavioral problem when the vaccination is actually introduced. 

Today, the Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan said that the government is in the process of ensuring vaccination for all and this campaign will start soon. India has developed two anti-coronavirus vaccines that are approved for emergency use. And within a year of the COVID-19 pandemic breaking out in the country, IANS quoted the Health Minister as saying. Speaking to journalists, Vardhan said that the vaccine was first introduced by health professionals, frontline workers, Army and paramilitary personnel, sanitary workers and the next phase will be vaccinated for people over the age of 50 and those under 50.

Meanwhile, Maharashtra minister and Shiv Sena leader Eknath Shinde said that the Center should bear the cost of COVID-19 vaccination in the state. Speaking at Thane civil hospital, he said that people should expect That is, the government should provide coronavirus vaccines for free.

Therefore, the central government should bear the cost of vaccination in the state. Maharashtra Health Minister Rajesh Tope has also urged the Center to provide free vaccination, "PTI quoted Shinde. The Telangana government on January 11 finalized an action plan for the operation of the COVID-19 vaccine in the state. Will give shape After this Chief Minister K. Chandrasekhar Rao called a meeting with all ministers and district collectors to discuss the distribution of the vaccine.
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